Gastric cancer, which is the 4th most common cancer among all cancers, is located in any part of the stomach and can spread to organs such as lymph nodes, liver and lungs. Stomach cancer occurs as a result of the development of malignant tumors in the gastric mucosa for various reasons. There are many causes of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer can develop and spread to any part of the digestive system organs. Behaviors and risk factors affecting all organs in the digestive process can also trigger stomach cancer. These can be listed as follows;
The most important cause of stomach cancer is wrong eating habits. Especially barbecued meat and similar foods, overly salted and pickled vegetables, processed foods predispose to the development of stomach cancer.
Another important factor that causes stomach cancer is H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection was seen in 65-85% of stomach cancer cases. Gastric cancer is also found in 2% of the cases with H.pylori infection.
Tobacco and Alcohol
A preventable cause of stomach cancer is smoking. Especially when consumed with alcohol, it increases the possibility of stomach cancer. By avoiding smoking and alcohol, the risk of stomach cancer can be reduced.
Genetic factors are important in stomach cancer, as in all other cancers. Genetic factors are prominent in 10% of stomach cancer cases.
After the diagnosis of stomach cancer and the type of cancer is determined, the treatment to be applied is decided. Success can be achieved with expert teamwork and a fully equipped hospital. Appropriate removal of the cancer-causing tumor is the most important part of the treatment of stomach cancer. Successful surgical operations performed at an early stage are very important for the patient’s life span and life comfort. The surgical method to be applied is planned according to the location of the cancer, whether there is a regional spread and whether there is a distant spread. For surgery to be performed for stomach cancer, a midline incision above the umbilical is generally more suitable. Sometimes it may be necessary to open the rib cage for tumors in the lower esophagus and stomach inlet. The surgical method to be applied is gastrectomy (removal of the stomach). There are two types of stomach cancer surgery: In partial gastrectomy, a portion of the cancerous stomach is removed. The surgeon may also remove part of the esophagus and small intestine. Close lymph nodes and other tissues can also be removed. The most common tumor is seen in the last third of the stomach. In this case, it is sufficient to remove the last part of the stomach. In total gastrectomy, the entire stomach, surrounding lymph nodes, esophagus and parts of the small intestine and other tissues adjacent to the tumor are removed. The surgeon then connects the esophagus directly to the small intestine. The surgeon makes a new stomach from the bowel. Removal of the spleen can also be added to this operation. Completely removal of the stomach is more appropriate for tumors located in the middle or upper third. Recovery time after surgery varies from person to person.